Stavudine - Article d4T; Zerit
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|1-[5-(hydroxymethyl)- 2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl] -5-methyl-1H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione|
|Mol. weight||224.213 g/mol|
|Metabolism||Renal elimination (ca.40%)|
|Half life||0.8-1.5 hours (in adults)|
|Pregnancy cat.|| |
Stavudine (2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit®) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) active against HIV.
Stavudine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in Jun 24, 1994 for adults and in Sep 6, 1996 for pediatric use and again as an extended-release version for once-a-day dosing in 2001. The fourth antiretroviral drug on the market, its patent will expire in the United States on 2008-06-25.
Mechanism of action
Stavudine is an analog of thymidine. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into active triphosphate. Stavudine triphosphate inhibits the HIV reverse transcriptase by competing with natural substrate, thymidine triphosphate. It also causes termination of DNA synthesis by incorporating into it.
The main severe adverse effect is peripheral neuropathy, which can be corrected by reducing dosage. Stavudine has been shown in laboratory test to be genotoxic, but with clinical doses its carcinogenic effects are non-existent. It is also one of the most likely antiviral drugs to cause lipodystrophy, and for this reason it is no longer recommended as a component of first line therapy .
|Antivirals (J05A and S01AD) edit|