Article: Kidney and Urologic Diseases Statistics for the United States

Kidney Problems

Kidney disease

Prevalence (1988-1994): An estimated 4.5 percent of adults 20 years of age and older have physiological evidence of chronic kidney disease (7.4 million adults) determined as a moderately or severely reduced glomerular filtration rate. 1

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, postdiarrheal

Incidence

2001: 202 cases in 28 states 2
2000: 249 cases in 24 states 3
1999: 181 cases in 26 states 3
1998: 119 cases in 17 states 3
1997: 93 cases in 20 states 4
1996: 104 cases in 18 states 4

End-stage renal disease (ESRD)

Prevalence (2001): 392,023 U.S. residents were under treatment during the calendar year 5

Resulting from these primary diseases:
Diabetes:  138,483
Hypertension:  91,636
Glomerulonephritis:  60,888
Cystic kidney:  17,112
All other:  83,904

Incidence (2001): 93,327 U.S. residents were new beneficiaries of treatment 5

Resulting from these primary diseases:
Diabetes:  41,312
Hypertension:  24,942
Glomerulonephritis:  7,687
Cystic kidney:  2,143
All other:  17,243
Mortality (2001): Among U.S. residents, there were 177.6 deaths per 1,000 patient years 5
76,584 deaths in all patients undergoing ESRD treatment 5
Costs for the ESRD program (2001): $22.8 billion in public and private spending 5

ESRD treatment:

Dialysis treatment (2001): 287,494 U.S. residents with ESRD received dialysis 5
In-center hemodialysis:  259,538
Home hemodialysis:  1,122
Peritoneal dialysis:  26,834
CAPD*:  11,794
CCPD:  12,014
Other PD:  445
Uncertain dialysis:  2,581

*CAPD=continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis;
CCPD=continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis;
PD=peritoneal dialysis

Number of kidney transplants performed 5:
2001:  15,331
2000:  14,680
1999:  13,770
1998:  13,532
1988:  9,655

Source of organ donations for kidney transplants performed (2001) 5:
From cadaver:  9,078
From living related donor:  3,480
From living unrelated donor:  1,130

Number of people awaiting transplants (December 18, 2003) 6:
Kidney (only):  56,598
Kidney and pancreas:  2,444

Dialysis survival (probability of patients surviving, from day 91 of ESRD, unadjusted) 5:
1 year (2000-2001):  77.8
2 years (1999-2001):  62.9
5 years (1996-2001):  31.9
10 years (1991-2001):  9.0

Patient survival following cadaver transplant (probability of recipients surviving, from day 1 of transplantation, unadjusted) 5:
1 year (2000-2001):  93.7
2 years (1999-2001):  91.6
5 years (1996-2001):  80.6
10 years (1991-2001):  58.9

Patient survival following living-donor transplant (probability of recipients surviving, from day 1 of transplantation, unadjusted) 5:
1 year (2000-2001):  97.6
2 years (1998-2001):  96.4
5 years (1996-2001):  90.4
10 years (1991-2001):  77.8

Graft survival following cadaver transplant (probability of transplanted kidney surviving, from day 1 of transplantation, unadjusted) 5:

1 year (2000-2001):  87.7
2 years (1999-2001):  82.8
5 years (1996-2001):  64.9
10 years (1991-2001):  37.1

Graft survival following living-donor transplant (probability of transplanted kidney surviving, from day 1 of transplantation, unadjusted) 5:
1 year (2000-2001):  94.1
2 years (1999-2001):  91.1
5 years (1996-2001):  77.7
10 years (1991-2001):  56.5

Urologic Problems

Interstitial cystitis

Prevalence (1988-1994): An estimated 3.6 percent of adults aged 20 or older (6.2 million) self-report having had a bladder infection that lasted more than 3 months (2.1 percent of men and 5.0 percent of women reported a history of this problem)

(1988-1994): An estimated 847,000 adults aged 20 or older self-report having been diagnosed with interstitial cystitis: 94 percent of affected adults were women. 7

Urinary stones

Prevalence of kidney stones: The percent of adults aged 20-74 who self-reported ever having had kidney stones: 7
(1988-1994):  5.2 percent of adults (6.3 percent of men and 4.1 percent of women) 8
(1976-1980):  3.2 percent of adults (4.9 percent of men and 2.8 percent of women) 8
Hospital discharges: The estimated number of hospital discharges among adults aged 20 years or older with "calculus of kidney and ureters" as a primary diagnosis:
(2001): 177,509 discharges 9
(2000): 168,564 discharges 10
Doctor visits: The estimated number of doctor visits by adults aged 20 years or older with "calculus of kidney and ureters" as a listed diagnosis:
(2000): 2.2 million visits 11
(1999): 1.8 million visits 12
Cost (1993): $1.83 billion expended (direct and indirect) for evaluation and treatment 13

Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

Prevalence (1988-1994): An estimated 34 percent of adults aged 20 or older (61.4 million) self-reported having had at least one occurrence of a urinary tract infection or cystitis 7
Men: 13.9 percent (11.7 million) have had a UTI or cystitis
Women: 53.5 percent (49.7 million) have had a UTI or cystitis
Incidence (1988-1994): 794 per 10,000 adults aged 20 years or older have at least one occurrence of a urinary tract infection or cystitis 7
Hospital discharges: The estimated number of hospital discharges among adults aged 20 years or older with urinary tract infection or cystitis listed as a diagnosis:
(2001): 1.78 million discharges (0.49 million men; 1.29 million women) 9
(2000): 1.69 million discharges (0.47 million men; 1.22 million women) 10
Doctor visits: The estimated number of doctor visits by patients aged 20 years or older, with urinary tract infection or cystitis listed as a diagnosis:
(2000): 9.1 million visits (1.3 million men; 7.9 million women) 11
(1999): 7.9 million visits (0.9 million men; 7.0 million women) 12

Urinary incontinence

Prevalence (2001): In community dwelling adults, urinary incontinence affects an estimated 35 percent of women 65 years or older and 10 percent of women younger than 65 years; 14

An estimated 22 percent of men 65 years or older and 1.5 percent of men younger than 65 years

30 to 50 percent of institutionalized adults 65 years or older have urinary incontinence. 14

Costs (1995): $16.3 billion annually in direct expenditures for routine care, evaluations, and treatments in persons aged 15 years and older 14

Other Related Problems

Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH)

Prevalence (1999-2000): 9.0 percent of men aged 30 years and older (6.3 million men) self-reported having been told by a physician that their prostate gland was enlarged and the enlargement was benign. 15

BPH prevalence estimates for different ages:

30-54: 2.2 percent
55-74: 19.6 percent
75-up: 36.3 percent

Hospital discharges: The estimated number of hospital discharges among men aged 20 years or older with a discharge diagnosis of "hyperplasia of the prostate":
(2001): 402,000 discharges 9
(2000): 398,000 discharges 10
Doctor visits: The estimated number of doctor visits by men aged 20 years or older with "hyperplasia of the prostate" as a listed diagnosis:
(2000): 6.4 million visits 11
(1999): 6.0 million visits 12

Erectile dysfunction (impotence)

Prevalence (2000-2002): 20 percent to 46 percent of men aged 40-69 years in community surveys self-reported moderate or complete erectile dysfunction. 16-18

Incidence (2000): 26 new cases per 1,000 population of men 40-69 years of age 19

Prostate cancer

Incidence (1996-2000): 975 cases per 100,000 population for men 65 years or older; 57 cases per 100,000 population for men under 65 years old 20

Mortality(1996-2000): 245 deaths per 100,000 population for men 65 years or older; 2 deaths per 100,000 population for men under 65 years old 20

Lifetime prevalence (2000): The number of living men who have had a diagnosis of prostate cancer is 1.6 million.

Sources

  1. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification. American Journal of Kidney Disease. 2002;39(2, Suppl. 1):S1-S266.

  2. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2003;50(53):xv.

  3. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2000. MMWR. 2002;49(53):xiii.

  4. Hemolytic uremic syndrome, postdiarrheal. MMWR. 1999;47(53):viii-ix.

  5. United States Renal Data System. USRDS 2003 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), DHHS; 2003. Available at www.usrds.org.

  6. United Network for Organ Sharing. Available at www.unos.org. Accessed January 14, 2003. For updates, call (804) 330-8576 or fax (804) 323-3794.

  7. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc. Weighted Analysis of 1988-1994 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). July 2003. [Unpublished data]

  8. Stamatelou KK, Francis ME, Jones CA, Nyberg LM, Curhan GC. Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976-1994. Kidney International. 2003;63:1817-1823.

  9. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc. Weighted Analysis of 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). July 2003. [Unpublished data]

  10. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc. Weighted Analysis of 2000 NHDS. July 2003. [Unpublished data]

  11. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc. Weighted Analysis of 2000 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). July 2003. [Unpublished data]

  12. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc. Weighted Analysis of 1999 NAMCS. July 2003. [Unpublished data]

  13. Clark JY, Thompson IM, Optenberg SA. Economic impact of urolithiasis in the United States. Journal of Urology. 1995;154(6):2020-2024.

  14. Wilson L, Brown JS, Shin GP, Luc KO, Subak LL. Annual Direct Cost of Urinary Incontinence. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001;98:398-406.

  15. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc. Weighted Analysis of 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). July 2003. [Unpublished data]

  16. Kantor J, Bilker WB, Glasser DB, Margolis DJ. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and active depression: An analytic cross-sectional study of general medical patients. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2002;156:1035-1042.

  17. Kleinman KP, Feldman HA, Johannes CB, et al. A new surrogate variable for erectile dysfunction status in the Massachusetts male aging study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2000;53:71-78.

  18. Ansong KS, Lewis C, Jenkins P, Bell J. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: a community-based study in rural New York state. Annals of Epidemiology. 2000;10:293-296.

  19. Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Feldman HA, Derby CA, Kleinman KP, McKinlay JB. Incidence of erectile dysfunction in men 40 to 69 years old: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Journal of Urology. 2000;163(2):460-463.

  20. National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2000 (seer.cancer.gov; accessed July 8, 2003)


Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Cache Date: December 10, 2004