Seychelles - Article
|National motto: Finis Coronat Opus |
(Latin: The End Crowns the Work)
|Official languages||English, French and Seychellois Creole|
- % water
|Ranked 197th |
- Total (year)
|Ranked 199th |
80,654 (2005 est.)
|HDI (2003)||0.821 (51st) â€“ high|
|From the United Kingdom |
June 29, 1976
|Time zone||UTC +4|
|National anthem||Koste Seselwa|
Seychelles, officially the Republic of Seychelles (pronounced /seÉªËˆÊƒel/ or /seÉªËˆÊƒelz/; French: RÃ©publique des Seychelles, pronounced /seÊƒÉ›l/; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago nation of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, some 1,600 km east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar. Other nearby island countries and territories include Mauritius and RÃ©union to the south, Comoros and Mayotte to the southwest, and the Suvadives of the Maldives to the northeast.
Main article: History of Seychelles
While Arab traders were probably the first to visit the uninhabited Seychelles, the first recorded sighting of them took place in 1505, by the Portuguese. As a transit point for trading between Africa and Asia, they were occasionally used by pirates until the French began to take control of the islands starting in 1756, naming them after Jean Moreau de Sechelles, the then French finance minister.
The British contested control over the islands with the French between 1794 and 1811, with the British eventually gaining the upper hand and being ceded the islands in 1814. The Seychelles became a crown colony separate from Mauritius in 1903 and independence was granted in 1976, as a republic within the Commonwealth. The 1979 constitution declared a socialist one-party state, which lasted until 1992.
- More information on politics and government of Seychelles can be found at the Politics and government of Seychelles series.
The Seychelles president, who is both head of state and head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term of office. The previous president, France Albert RenÃ©, was democratically elected after the constitutional reforms of 1992, though he had been in power since a coup d'Ã©tat in 1977. He stood down in 2004 in favour of his vice-president, James Michel. The cabinet is presided over and appointed by the president, subject to the approval of a majority of the legislature.
The unicameral Seychellois parliament, the National Assembly or AssemblÃ©e Nationale, consists of 34 members, of whom 25 are elected directly by popular vote, while the remaining 9 seats are appointed proportionally according to the percentage of votes received by each party. All members serve five-year terms.
Politics is a topic of hot debate in the country - with many claiming there is a social and economic divide between the two leading parties and their supporters.
The Seychelles are part of the Indian Ocean Commission.
Main article: Districts of Seychelles
Seychelles is divided into 25 administrative regions, called districts:
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The Seychelles constitute an archipelago in the Indian Ocean of 41 islands, of which 33 are inhabited. The group of islands around MahÃ© consist of granite and are the largest and most populated of the country. The remaining outer group consists of smaller coralline atolls. The capital city, Victoria, is situated on MahÃ©, which is the largest island and home to about 80% of the total population, as well as the Seychelles' highest point, the Morne Seychellois at 905 m.
The local climate is tropical, tempered by marine influences and fairly humid. The southwest monsoon is a generally cooler season which lasts from late May to September, while the warmer northwest monsoon lasts from October to May. The Seychelles are fortunate to lie outside the tropical cyclone belt.
Seychelles largely escaped the Asian Tsunami of December 2004 spawned by an earthquake. However, the islands did see significant flooding and damage - as well as loss of marine life and death toll of three people.
The Seychelles also claims the Glorioso Islands.
Since independence in 1976, per capita output has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labour force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services.
At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-1992 due largely to the country's significantly overvalued exchange rate, the Gulf War and once again following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S.. Other issues facing the government are the curbing of the budget deficit, including the containment of social welfare costs, and further privatisation of public enterprises. The government has a pervasive presence in economic activity, with public enterprises active in petroleum product distribution, insurance, banking, imports of basic products, telecommunications, and a wide range of other businesses.
Growth slowed in 1998â€“2001, due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors. Also, tight controls on exchange rates and the scarcity of foreign exchange have impaired short-term economic prospects. The black market value of the Seychelles rupee is half the official exchange rate; without a devaluation of the currency the tourist sector should remain sluggish as tourists seek cheaper destinations such as nearby Comoros and Madagascar. A reduction in the number of flights serving the country, primarily due to the inability by airline companies to repatriate funds, has also constrained the growth of the tourism industry. The recent entry of Emirates and Qatar airlines has yet to result in increased growth.
At official exchange rates Seychelles remains the richest country in Africa in terms of GDP per capita. (US$7,504 as of 2005), although if the parallel exchange rate, or purchasing power parity rates, are used, it ranks behind Mauritius and Botswana. Because of economic contraction (the economy declined by about 2% in 2004 and 2005 and is set to decline by at least the same level in 2006) the country is moving downwards in terms of per capita income.
It is important to note that Seychelles is, per capita, the most highly indebted country in the world according to the World Bank, with total public debt around 122.8% of GDP. Approximately two thirds of this debt is owed domestically, with the balance due to multilaterals, bilaterals and commercial banks. The country is in arrears to most of its international creditors and has had to resort to pledged commercial debt to continue to be able to borrow. This high debt burden is a direct consequence of the overvalued exchange rate â€” in essence, the country is living beyond its means, and financing its lifestyle by borrowing domestically and internationally.
Main article: Demographics of Seychelles
As the islands of the Seychelles had no indigenous population, the current Seychellois are composed of immigrants, mostly of French, African, Indian, and Chinese descent. French and English are official languages along with a French-based Creole. Most Seychellois are Christians, mostly Catholics.
- Seychellois Creole
Main article: Culture of Seychelles
- Music of Seychelles
Fauna and flora
The early colonial history of Seychelles is infamous for the disappearance of most of the giant tortoises from the granitic islands, felling of coastal and mid-level forests and extinction of species such as the Chesnut flanked white eye, the Seychelles parakeet and the saltwater crocodile. The Seychelles today is known for success stories in protecting its flora and fauna. Conservation started in the 1960's by a small group of local enthusiasts. Although many of the conservation laws date back to British colonial days, the Seychelles government has strictly protected the natural heritage of the islands for many years. Flagship species, the Seychelles Magpie Robin and the Seychelles Warbler, have been spectacularly rescued from the brink of extinction by BirdLife International and its local partner Nature Seychelles, supported by the Royal Society for Nature Conservation, private islands and the government. These birds, once restricted to one island each, have been translocated to many others. Seychelles has 12 endemic bird species including the Seychelles Flycatcher, Scops Owl, White Eye, Swiftlet, Kestrel, Blue Pigeon and Sunbird.
Seychelles is home to 2 U.N.E.S.C.O. World Heritage Sites run by the Seychelles Islands Foundation. They are the island of Aldabra, which is the world's largest raised coral atoll and also the VallÃ©e de Mai on Praslin island, billed as the original site of the Garden of Eden. The Cousin Island Special Reserve, purchased by BirdLife International in 1968, is an internationally-known bird and marine sanctuary which has won several awards for conservation and ecotourism. Seychelles has six national marine parks including the St. Anne National Marine Park located adjacent to the capital, Port Victoria which are managed by the government parastatal, Marine Parks Authority. Much of the land territory (about 40%) and a substantial part of the coastal sea around Seychelles are protected as National Parks, including Marine Parks, and Reserves.
Several private island owners, especially those with up market hotel resorts, have collaborated with the government and the NGO Nature Seychelles to restore island habitats and to re-introduce threatened species. These islands incude Fregate, Denis and Cousine. The management of these islands now employ full time conservation officers and fund conservation programmes. The island restoration program has now been taken to the outer islands by the Island Conservation Society, an NGO.
The Seychelles are home to 81 endemic plant species. Well-known is the Coco de mer, a species of palm that grows only on the islands of Praslin and Curieuse. Sometimes nicknamed the 'love nut' because of its suggestive shape, the coco-de-mer is the world's largest seed. The jellyfish tree is to be found in only a few locations today. This strange and ancient plant has resisted all efforts to propagate it. Other unique plant species include the Wrights Gardenia found only on Aride Island Special Reserve.
The giant tortoises from Aldabra now populate many of the islands of the Seychelles. These unique reptiles can be found even in captive herds. The granitic islands of Seychelles were once thought to support at least three distinct species of giant tortoises, but recently published genetic studies have shown that all the tortoises are of Aldabran origin.
Seychelles hosts some of the largest seabird colonies in the world. Islands such as Bird, Aride, Cousin, Aldabra and Cosmoledo host many species of seabirds including the Sooty tern, Fairy tern, White-tailed tropic bird, Noddies and Frigatebirds.
The marine life around the islands, especially the more remote coral islands, can be spectacular. More than 1000 species of fish have been recorded. Since the use of spearguns and dynamite for fishing was banned through efforts of local conservationists in the 1960's, the wildlife is unafraid of snorklers and divers. Coral bleaching in 1998 has unfortunately damaged most reefs. The taking of marine turtles was completely stopped in 1994, but most turtle populations except on Cousin Island and Aldabra, have not fully recovered. The use of gill nets for shark fishing as well as the practice of shark finning are now banned.
- List of Notable Seychellois
- Communications in Seychelles
- Transportation in Seychelles
- Military of Seychelles
- Foreign relations of Seychelles
- Religion in Seychelles
- Islam in Seychelles
- Seychelles Scout Association
- Birds of the Seychelles Ian Bullock, Adrian Skerrett, Tony Disley
- Bradt travel Guide: Seychelles Lynnath Beckleya and Lyn Mair
- The History of Slavery in Mauritius and the Seychelles, 1810-1875 Moses D. E., Nwulia
- Insight Guide: Mauritius, RÃ©union and Seychelles Emily Hatchwell
- Insight Pocket Guide: Seychelles Judith Skerrett
- Lonely Planet World Guide: Mauritius, RÃ©union and Seychelles Jan Dodd, Madeleine Philippe
- Political Castaways Christopher Lee
- The Seychelles Michael Friedel
- Seychelles Vincenzo Paolillo
- Seychelles: Garden of Eden in the Indian Ocean Sarah Carpin
- Seychelles: The New Era France RenÃ©
- Seychelles Since 1770: History of a Slave and Post-Slavery Society Deryck Scarr
- 'Rivals in Eden' and 'Hard Times in Paradise' Bill McAteer