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Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Antimalarials in Kenyan Infants - Article


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Anemia

General anemia 



Clinical Trial: Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Antimalarials in Kenyan Infants

This study is currently recruiting patients.

Sponsors and Collaborators: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Kenya Medical Research Institute
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Information provided by: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to see whether antimalarial drugs administered at the time of routine infant vaccinations prevents malaria and anemia in the first year of life.

Condition Treatment or Intervention
Malaria
Anemia
 Drug: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with artesunate
 Drug: amodiaquine with artesunate
 Drug: chlorproguanil-dapsone

MedlinePlus related topics:  Anemia;   Malaria

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Prevention, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Control, Single Group Assignment, Safety/Efficacy Study

Official Title: Efficacy and Safety of Pediatric Immunization-linked Preventive Intermittent Treatment with Antimalarials in Decreasing Anemia and Malaria Morbidity in Rural Western Kenya

Further Study Details: 
Primary Outcomes: Clinical malaria in the first year of life
Secondary Outcomes: Moderate and severe anemia in the first year of life; Serologic responses to Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines (Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Hemophilus Influenzae type B, and Measles); Nasal carriage rates of Haemophilus influenza type b; All cause hospitalization in the first year of life
Expected Total Enrollment:  1516

Study start: March 2004

Approximately three quarters of preschool children in eastern Africa suffer from anemia, defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration below 11 g/dL. For children < 5 years of age, the overall incidence of severe malarial anemia (Hb < 5 g/dl) is estimated at 15-60 cases per 1,000 children per year. Other studies have confirmed that the burden of malaria-related anemia falls primarily on infants and young children. In 2000, Schellenberg and colleagues, working in an area of Tanzania with a low to moderate level of Plasmodium falciparum transmission and a low level of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, demonstrated that by linking intermittent prophylaxis to routine immunization visits through the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), SP could be administered to children at 2,3, and 9 months of age, resulting in a 59% reduction in rates of clinical malaria and a 50% reduction in the rate of severe anemia (Hb<8 g/dl) compared to those receiving placebo. This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial is being conducted to estimate the efficacy of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Infants (IPTi) with SP + three doses of artesunate (AS) (SP/AS3) given in combination with iron supplementation from 2-6 months of age at routine EPI visits on the prevention of clinical malaria, moderate anemia, and severe anemia in the first 18 months of life in an area with intense malaria transmission and near universal ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs). The primary objective is to compare the efficacy of iron supplementation and IPTi with one of 3 antimalarial regimens (SP/AS3, chlorproguanil-dapsone (Lapdap), or AQ/AS3) given at routine EPI visits with iron supplementation alone (+ placebo) on the prevention of clinical malaria in the first year of life. Specific secondary objectives are: 1) Compare the efficacy of iron supplementation plus IPTi with one of 3 antimalarial regimens (SP/AS3, Lapdap [chlorproguanil-dapsone], or AQ/AS3) given at routine EPI visits with iron supplementation alone (+ placebo) on the prevention of moderate and severe anemia in the first year of life; 2) Assess the impact of IPTi with the aforementioned regimens on serologic responses to EPI vaccines (Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Hemophilus Influenzae type B, and Measles; 3) Assess the impact of IPTi with the aforementioned regimens (particularly SP/AS3) on the nasal carriage rates of Haemophilus influenza type b; and 4) Compare the efficacy of iron supplementation and IPTi with one of 3 antimalarial regimens (SP/AS3, Lapdap [chlorproguanil-dapsone], or AQ/AS3) given at routine EPI visits with iron supplementation alone (+ placebo) on the prevention of all-cause hospitalization in the first year of life. This trial will generate important public health information on the efficacy of IPTi in preventing anemia and clinical malaria among infants in an area with intense malaria transmission and ongoing prevention efforts through the use of insecticide treated nets. This trial will contribute towards understanding IPTi’s mechanism of action (i.e. through intermittent clearance of parasites vs. a chemoprophylactic effect afforded through the use of an antimalarial with a long half-life). The information gained will be useful to determine the safety of IPTi, and to decide what sort of antimalarials are appropriate for IPTi, and ultimately will help to direct child survival and malaria control policy in African countries. If alternative drug regimes to SP prove effective, that information will be valuable to policymakers as levels of P. falciparum resistance to SP rise with increased usage in east Africa.

Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:  5 Weeks   -   16 Weeks,  Genders Eligible for Study:  Both

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Presenting for Pentavalent 1 immunization
  • Age 5 weeks to 16 weeks
  • Parent or guardian currently resident in study catchment area
  • Parent or guardian has given permission for their child to participate

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Known allergy to any of the study drugs
  • Current Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis
  • Concomitant disease requiring hospitalization or transfusion
  • Plans to be away from the study area for more than 6 months during the next year

Location and Contact Information

Please refer to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov identifier  NCT00111163

Robert D. Newman, MD, MPH      770-488-7559    ren5@cdc.gov

Kenya, Nyanza Province
      Lwak, Abidha, Ongielo and Saradidi clinics, Asembo (Rarieda Division),  Nyanza Province,  Kenya; Recruiting
Frank Odhiambo, MSc  254-57-20-22902    fodhiambo@ke.cdc.gov 
Peter Otieno  254-57-20-22902    potieno@ke.cdc.gov 
Mary Hamel, MD,  Sub-Investigator

Study chairs or principal investigators

Robert D Newman, MD, MPH,  Principal Investigator,  U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   
Laurence Slutsker, MD, MPH,  Principal Investigator,  U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   

More Information

Publications

Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Aponte J, Vidal J, Tanner M, Mshinda H, Alonso P. Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2001 May 12;357(9267):1471-7.

Massaga JJ, Kitua AY, Lemnge MM, Akida JA, Malle LN, Ronn AM, Theander TG, Bygbjerg IC. Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003 May 31;361(9372):1853-60.

Study ID Numbers:  CDC-NCID-3606; SSC 701
Record last reviewed:  May 2005
Last Updated:  May 18, 2005
Record first received:  May 17, 2005
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:  NCT00111163
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government; Kenya: Kenya Medical Research Institute (Awaiting confirmation)
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on 2005-05-24

Resources



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