Clinical Trial: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Children with a Previous Urinary Tract Infection

This study is no longer recruiting patients.

Sponsors and Collaborators: University of Padova
Regione Veneto
No profit charity "IL Sogno di Stefano"
Information provided by: University of Padova Identifier: NCT00156546


Our hypothesis is that long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis does not reduce the recurrence of infection and the risk of appearance of kidney scars in children with a documented previous upper UTI.
Condition Intervention Phase
Urinary Tract Infections
 Drug: antibiotic to reduce the recurrence of infection
Phase IV

MedlinePlus related topics:  Urinary Tract Infections

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Prevention, Randomized, Open Label, Active Control, Parallel Assignment, Efficacy Study

Official Title: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Children with a History of Upper Urinary Tract Infections:a Multicentre Randomised Study.

Further Study Details: 
Primary Outcomes: The primary end-point is UTI Recurrence Rate during the 12-month observation period and the Development of renal damage (parenchymal scar) after 12 months.
Secondary Outcomes: The secondary objectives are the comparison, in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, between two antimicrobial agents that are currently approved for prophylactic use: co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg daily versus amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 15 mg/kg daily.
Expected Total Enrollment:  660

Study start: May 2000;  Study completion: November 2006
Last follow-up: July 2006;  Data entry closure: September 2006


Upper urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in children, especially when functional and anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract co-exist, such as vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction uropathy and bladder dysfunction. They are associated with the risk of long-term complications, including permanent renal damage (renal scarring), which occurs in 15% of cases. The objective of the diagnosis and medical treatment of UTI in children is the prevention of such complications. Medical treatment includes long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis to be continued for periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years. Recent studies have revealed the emergence of therapy-induced resistance. A review of the literature has highlighted the lack of properly designed, large clinical trials, demonstrating the efficacy of long-term low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis in terms of reduction in UTI recurrence.

Methods and design

The study is a controlled, randomised, open-label, 3-armed, parallel-group clinical trial comparing no prophylaxis (group 1) with prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg daily (group 2) and with amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 15 mg/kg daily (group 3) for 12 months.

Assuming that the incidence of recurrences is 20%, defining efficacy as an incidence of 10% per group and setting  error = 0.05 and power = 90%, 220 patients per group (i.e. a total of 660 patients) are required The study population will consist of children aged between 2 months and 6 years, with normal renal function (creatinine clearance  70 ml/min/1.73m2) and a first episode of documented UTI, who presents at least one of the following: an acute pielonephritic lesion at the DMSA scan and/or a VUR at the baseline micturating cystography.

Patients will be followed-up for 12 months. Urinalysis and urine cultures will be performed every month and clinical examinations after 6 and 12 months; both will be performed whenever UTI is suspected. Sonography, Doppler sonography (optional) and DMSA scintigraphy will be performed at baseline and at the end of the study.


Ages Eligible for Study:  2 Months   -   6 Years,  Genders Eligible for Study:  Both

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age between 2 months and 6 years
  • Creatinine clearance (calculated according to Schwartz)  70 ml/min/1.73 m2 (for children in their first year of life, serum creatinine levels within normal range for age and sex)
  • First documented upper UTI (diagnostic criteria in Table 1)
  • Imaging Diagnostic work-up completed (Table 2) with at least the presence of an acute lesion at the DMSA scan and or a primary non severe reflux ( 1st or 3rd degree)
  • Informed consent of parents

Exclusion Criteria:

Location Information

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Mestre, Mestre Venezia,  Italy

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Verona, Verona,  Italy

      Pediatric Department, Ospedale Maggiore, Bologna,  Italy

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Belluno, Belluno,  Italy

      - Pediatric Department, Ospedale di Bolzano, Bolzano,  Italy

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Cuneo, Cuneo,  Italy

      Nephrology, Dialysis and transplant Unit Pediatric Depatment,, Padova,  35128,  Italy

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Ravenna, Ravenna,  Italy

Italy, Bologna
      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Bentivoglio, Bentivoglio,  Bologna,  Italy

Italy, Padova
      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Este - Monselice, Monselice,  Padova,  Italy

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Piove di Sacco e Chioggia, Piove di Sacco,  Padova,  Italy

Italy, Treviso
      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Castelfranco, Castelfranco Veneto,  Treviso,  Italy

      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Motta di Livenza, Motta di Livenza Oderzo,  Treviso,  Italy

Italy, Venezia
      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Dolo, Dolo,  Venezia,  Italy

Italy, Verona
      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Soave, Soave,  Verona,  Italy

Italy, Vicenza
      Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Schio/Thiene, Thiene,  Vicenza,  Italy

Study chairs or principal investigators

Graziella Zacchello, Professor,  Study Chair,  Departement of Pediatrics, University of Padova   
Antonella Toffolo, Dr,  Principal Investigator,  Pediatric Unit Ospedale di Oderzo (TV) Italy   
Alessandro Calderan, Dr,  Principal Investigator,  Unaffiliated   
Giovanni Montini, Dr,  Principal Investigator,  Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant Unit, Pediatric Departement, Azienda Ospedaliera-Università, Padova   

More Information


Benfield MR, McDonald R, Sullivan EK, Stablein DM, Tejani A. The 1997 Annual Renal Transplantation in Children Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). Pediatr Transplant. 1999 May;3(2):152-67.

Wennerstrom M, Hansson S, Jodal U, Stokland E. Primary and acquired renal scarring in boys and girls with urinary tract infection. J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;136(1):30-4.

Hoberman A, Wald ER, Hickey RW, Baskin M, Charron M, Majd M, Kearney DH, Reynolds EA, Ruley J, Janosky JE. Oral versus initial intravenous therapy for urinary tract infections in young febrile children. Pediatrics. 1999 Jul;104(1 Pt 1):79-86.

Downs SM. Technical report: urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children. The Urinary Tract Subcommittee of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Quality Improvement. Pediatrics. 1999 Apr;103(4):e54.

Hohenfellner K, Hunley TE, Brezinska R, Brodhag P, Shyr Y, Brenner W, Habermehl P, Kon V. ACE I/D gene polymorphism predicts renal damage in congenital uropathies. Pediatr Nephrol. 1999 Aug;13(6):514-8.

Bollgren I. Antibacterial prophylaxis in children with urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999 Nov;88(431):48-52. Review.

Williams G, Lee A, Craig J. Antibiotics for the prevention of urinary tract infection in children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr. 2001 Jun;138(6):868-74. Review.

Williams GJ, Lee A, Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD001534. Review.

Ghiro L, Cracco AT, Sartor M, Comacchio S, Zacchello G, Dall''''Amico R; Veneto Urinary Tract Infection Study Group. Retrospective study of children with acute pyelonephritis. Evaluation of bacterial etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, drug management and imaging studies. Nephron. 2002 Jan;90(1):8-15.

Study ID Numbers:  IRIS 2
Last Updated:  September 9, 2005
Record first received:  September 7, 2005 Identifier:  NCT00156546
Health Authority: Italy: National Monitoring Centre for Clinical Trials - Ministry of Health processed this record on 2005-09-13

Common Treatments

[ Disclaimer: The information on GoldBamboo for any particular treatment, medicine, drug, or herbal product might be missing or incomplete, and should never be used as a single source of knowledge. GoldBamboo generally has links to authoritative sites displayed toward the bottom of each topic page under the heading "Resources". ]

Follow Us