Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Children with a Previous Urinary Tract Infection - Article
Clinical Trial: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Children with a Previous Urinary Tract Infection
This study is no longer recruiting patients.
|Urinary Tract Infections || Drug: antibiotic to reduce the recurrence of infection ||Phase IV |
MedlinePlus related topics: Urinary Tract Infections
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Prevention, Randomized, Open Label, Active Control, Parallel Assignment, Efficacy Study
Secondary Outcomes: The secondary objectives are the comparison, in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, between two antimicrobial agents that are currently approved for prophylactic use: co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg daily versus amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 15 mg/kg daily.
Expected Total Enrollment: 660
Study start: May 2000; Study completion: November 2006
Last follow-up: July 2006; Data entry closure: September 2006
Upper urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in children, especially when functional and anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract co-exist, such as vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction uropathy and bladder dysfunction. They are associated with the risk of long-term complications, including permanent renal damage (renal scarring), which occurs in 15% of cases. The objective of the diagnosis and medical treatment of UTI in children is the prevention of such complications. Medical treatment includes long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis to be continued for periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years. Recent studies have revealed the emergence of therapy-induced resistance. A review of the literature has highlighted the lack of properly designed, large clinical trials, demonstrating the efficacy of long-term low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis in terms of reduction in UTI recurrence.
Methods and design
The study is a controlled, randomised, open-label, 3-armed, parallel-group clinical trial comparing no prophylaxis (group 1) with prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg daily (group 2) and with amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 15 mg/kg daily (group 3) for 12 months.
Assuming that the incidence of recurrences is 20%, defining efficacy as an incidence of 10% per group and setting error = 0.05 and power = 90%, 220 patients per group (i.e. a total of 660 patients) are required The study population will consist of children aged between 2 months and 6 years, with normal renal function (creatinine clearance 70 ml/min/1.73m2) and a first episode of documented UTI, who presents at least one of the following: an acute pielonephritic lesion at the DMSA scan and/or a VUR at the baseline micturating cystography.
Patients will be followed-up for 12 months. Urinalysis and urine cultures will be performed every month and clinical examinations after 6 and 12 months; both will be performed whenever UTI is suspected. Sonography, Doppler sonography (optional) and DMSA scintigraphy will be performed at baseline and at the end of the study.
- Age between 2 months and 6 years
- Creatinine clearance (calculated according to Schwartz) 70 ml/min/1.73 m2 (for children in their first year of life, serum creatinine levels within normal range for age and sex)
- First documented upper UTI (diagnostic criteria in Table 1)
- Imaging Diagnostic work-up completed (Table 2) with at least the presence of an acute lesion at the DMSA scan and or a primary non severe reflux ( 1st or 3rd degree)
- Informed consent of parents
- Patients with chronic renal insufficiency or 30% relative function of one kidney at DMSA scan
- Patients with urinary tract disorders, such as vesico-ureteral reflux due to complex malformations of the urinary tract, obstruction of the posterior urethra, ureterocele or single kidney, neurogenic bladder
- Patients with reflux 4th degree
- Patients with pyelonephritis that developed during prophylaxis instituted because of prenatal diagnosis of urinary tract dilatation Hypersensitivity to one of the two selected antimicrobial agents
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Mestre, Mestre Venezia, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Verona, Verona, Italy
Pediatric Department, Ospedale Maggiore, Bologna, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Belluno, Belluno, Italy
- Pediatric Department, Ospedale di Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Cuneo, Cuneo, Italy
Nephrology, Dialysis and transplant Unit Pediatric Depatment,, Padova, 35128, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Ravenna, Ravenna, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Bentivoglio, Bentivoglio, Bologna, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Este - Monselice, Monselice, Padova, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Piove di Sacco e Chioggia, Piove di Sacco, Padova, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Castelfranco, Castelfranco Veneto, Treviso, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Motta di Livenza, Motta di Livenza Oderzo, Treviso, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Dolo, Dolo, Venezia, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Soave, Soave, Verona, Italy
Pediatric Unit, Ospedale di Schio/Thiene, Thiene, Vicenza, Italy
Graziella Zacchello, Professor, Study Chair, Departement of Pediatrics, University of Padova
Antonella Toffolo, Dr, Principal Investigator, Pediatric Unit Ospedale di Oderzo (TV) Italy
Alessandro Calderan, Dr, Principal Investigator, Unaffiliated
Giovanni Montini, Dr, Principal Investigator, Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant Unit, Pediatric Departement, Azienda Ospedaliera-Università, Padova
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Last Updated: September 9, 2005
Record first received: September 7, 2005
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00156546
Health Authority: Italy: National Monitoring Centre for Clinical Trials - Ministry of Health
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on 2005-09-13